Зобное молоко. Зобное молоко

Зобное молоко. Зобное молоко


Зобное молоко — Википедия (с комментариями)

Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии

Зо́бное молоко́ или «пти́чье молоко́» или голуби́ное молоко́ — творожистый секрет, вырабатываемый у некоторых птиц для кормления своих птенцов. Оно характерно для представителей семейства голубиных, ряда попугаев, фламинго и некоторых пингвинов[1][2][3]. У голубей зобное молоко секретируется клетками зоба, а у фламинго и пингвинов данный секрет выделяют особые железы пищевода и желудка.

В период размножения эпителий стенок зоба у самок и самцов указанных выше птиц вырабатывает питательный секрет — жидкость, которой и питаются птенцы, быстро набирая вес. Птенцы кормятся родителями зобным молоком в первые дни после вылупления. Со временем родители вскармливают птенцов другими типами кормов, постепенно переставая кормить зобным молоком[4].

Выкармливание птенцов зобным молоком

Выкармливание птенцов зобным молоком наиболее изучено на примере голубей. У них уже во время высиживания кладки у самца и особенно у самки происходит постепенное утолщение внутренней оболочки зоба. Затем она постепенно расширяется. Зоб характеризуется развитой системой кровеносных сосудов. Под влиянием циркуляции крови внутренние железы зоба начинают секретировать творожистую слизистую жидкость беловатого цвета. Она затем смешивается с густыми массами, отрыгиваемыми голубем из желудка в зоб[4].

Отличия от молока млекопитающих

Несмотря на своё название, зобное молоко не имеет ничего общего с настоящим молоком млекопитающих либо его ингредиентами[5]. Птичье молоко содержит в своем составе большое количество жиров и белков, но, в отличие от настоящего молока млекопитающих, не содержит углеводов, лактозы и кальция[5].

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Примечания

  1. ↑ Levi Wendell. The Pigeon. — Sumter, S.C.: Levi Publishing Co, Inc, 1977. — ISBN 0-85390-013-2.
  2. ↑ Silver, Rae (1984). «[www.columbiauniversity.org/cu/psychology/silver/publications/035Silver%201984.PDF Prolactin and Parenting in the Pigeon Family]». The Journal of Experimental Zoology 232 (3): 617–625. DOI:10.1002/jez.1402320330. PMID 6394702.
  3. ↑ Eraud, C., Dorie, A., Jacquet, A. and Faivre, B. (2008). «The crop milk: a potential new route for carotenoid-mediated parental effects». Journal of Avian Biology 39 (2): 247–251. DOI:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04053.x.
  4. ↑ 1 2 Шапошников Ю. С. «Наши голуби». Москва, 1995
  5. ↑ 1 2 [exoticpetvet.net/avian/dairy.html Dairy Products and Birds]

Отрывок, характеризующий Зобное молоко

– Эй вы, шестой роты! Черти, дьяволы! Подсоби… тоже мы пригодимся. Шестой роты человек двадцать, шедшие в деревню, присоединились к тащившим; и плетень, саженей в пять длины и в сажень ширины, изогнувшись, надавя и режа плечи пыхтевших солдат, двинулся вперед по улице деревни. – Иди, что ли… Падай, эка… Чего стал? То то… Веселые, безобразные ругательства не замолкали. – Вы чего? – вдруг послышался начальственный голос солдата, набежавшего на несущих. – Господа тут; в избе сам анарал, а вы, черти, дьяволы, матершинники. Я вас! – крикнул фельдфебель и с размаху ударил в спину первого подвернувшегося солдата. – Разве тихо нельзя? Солдаты замолкли. Солдат, которого ударил фельдфебель, стал, покряхтывая, обтирать лицо, которое он в кровь разодрал, наткнувшись на плетень. – Вишь, черт, дерется как! Аж всю морду раскровянил, – сказал он робким шепотом, когда отошел фельдфебель. – Али не любишь? – сказал смеющийся голос; и, умеряя звуки голосов, солдаты пошли дальше. Выбравшись за деревню, они опять заговорили так же громко, пересыпая разговор теми же бесцельными ругательствами. В избе, мимо которой проходили солдаты, собралось высшее начальство, и за чаем шел оживленный разговор о прошедшем дне и предполагаемых маневрах будущего. Предполагалось сделать фланговый марш влево, отрезать вице короля и захватить его. Когда солдаты притащили плетень, уже с разных сторон разгорались костры кухонь. Трещали дрова, таял снег, и черные тени солдат туда и сюда сновали по всему занятому, притоптанному в снегу, пространству. Топоры, тесаки работали со всех сторон. Все делалось без всякого приказания. Тащились дрова про запас ночи, пригораживались шалашики начальству, варились котелки, справлялись ружья и амуниция. Притащенный плетень осьмою ротой поставлен полукругом со стороны севера, подперт сошками, и перед ним разложен костер. Пробили зарю, сделали расчет, поужинали и разместились на ночь у костров – кто чиня обувь, кто куря трубку, кто, донага раздетый, выпаривая вшей.

Казалось бы, что в тех, почти невообразимо тяжелых условиях существования, в которых находились в то время русские солдаты, – без теплых сапог, без полушубков, без крыши над головой, в снегу при 18° мороза, без полного даже количества провианта, не всегда поспевавшего за армией, – казалось, солдаты должны бы были представлять самое печальное и унылое зрелище.

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Зобное молоко — Википедия (с комментариями)

Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии

Зо́бное молоко́ или «пти́чье молоко́» или голуби́ное молоко́ — творожистый секрет, вырабатываемый у некоторых птиц для кормления своих птенцов. Оно характерно для представителей семейства голубиных, ряда попугаев, фламинго и некоторых пингвинов[1][2][3]. У голубей зобное молоко секретируется клетками зоба, а у фламинго и пингвинов данный секрет выделяют особые железы пищевода и желудка.

В период размножения эпителий стенок зоба у самок и самцов указанных выше птиц вырабатывает питательный секрет — жидкость, которой и питаются птенцы, быстро набирая вес. Птенцы кормятся родителями зобным молоком в первые дни после вылупления. Со временем родители вскармливают птенцов другими типами кормов, постепенно переставая кормить зобным молоком[4].

Выкармливание птенцов зобным молоком

Выкармливание птенцов зобным молоком наиболее изучено на примере голубей. У них уже во время высиживания кладки у самца и особенно у самки происходит постепенное утолщение внутренней оболочки зоба. Затем она постепенно расширяется. Зоб характеризуется развитой системой кровеносных сосудов. Под влиянием циркуляции крови внутренние железы зоба начинают секретировать творожистую слизистую жидкость беловатого цвета. Она затем смешивается с густыми массами, отрыгиваемыми голубем из желудка в зоб[4].

Отличия от молока млекопитающих

Несмотря на своё название, зобное молоко не имеет ничего общего с настоящим молоком млекопитающих либо его ингредиентами[5]. Птичье молоко содержит в своем составе большое количество жиров и белков, но, в отличие от настоящего молока млекопитающих, не содержит углеводов, лактозы и кальция[5].

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Примечания

  1. ↑ Levi Wendell. The Pigeon. — Sumter, S.C.: Levi Publishing Co, Inc, 1977. — ISBN 0-85390-013-2.
  2. ↑ Silver, Rae (1984). «[http://www.columbiauniversity.org/cu/psychology/silver/publications/035Silver%201984.PDF Prolactin and Parenting in the Pigeon Family]». The Journal of Experimental Zoology 232 (3): 617–625. DOI:[//dx.doi.org/10.1002%2Fjez.1402320330 10.1002/jez.1402320330]. PMID 6394702.
  3. ↑ Eraud, C., Dorie, A., Jacquet, A. and Faivre, B. (2008). «The crop milk: a potential new route for carotenoid-mediated parental effects». Journal of Avian Biology 39 (2): 247–251. DOI:[//dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.0908-8857.2008.04053.x 10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04053.x].
  4. ↑ 1 2 Шапошников Ю. С. «Наши голуби». Москва, 1995
  5. ↑ 1 2 [http://exoticpetvet.net/avian/dairy.html Dairy Products and Birds]

Отрывок, характеризующий Зобное молоко

«Человек» приветственно поднял развёрнутую к ней ладонь и ласково произнёс: – Остановись, Звёздная... Твой Путь не закончен ещё. Ты не можешь идти Домой. Возвращайся в Мидгард, Мария... И береги Ключ Богов. Да сохранит тебя Вечность. И тут, мощная фигура незнакомца начала вдруг медленно колебаться, становясь совершенно прозрачной, будто собираясь исчезнуть. – Кто ты?.. Прошу, скажи мне, кто ты?!. – умоляюще крикнула Магдалина. – Странник... Ты ещё встретишь меня. Прощай, Звёздная... Вдруг дивный кристалл резко захлопнулся... Чудо оборвалось также неожиданно, как и начиналось. Вокруг тут же стало зябко и пусто... Будто на дворе стояла зима. – Что это было, Радомир?!. Это ведь намного больше, чем нас учили!..– не спуская с зелёного «камня» глаз, потрясённо спросила Магдалина. – Я просто чуть приоткрыл его. Чтобы ты могла увидеть. Но это всего лишь песчинка из того, что он может. Поэтому ты должна сохранить его, что бы со мной ни случилось. Любой ценой... включая твою жизнь, и даже жизнь Весты и Светодара. Впившись в неё своими пронзительно-голубыми глазами, Радомир настойчиво ждал ответа. Магдалина медленно кивнула. – Он это же наказал... Странник... Радомир лишь кивнул, явно понимая, о ком она говорила. – Тысячелетиями люди пытаются найти Ключ Богов. Только никто не ведает, как он по-настоящему выглядит. Да и смысла его не знают, – уже намного мягче продолжил Радомир. – О нём ходят самые невероятные легенды, одни – очень красивы, другие – почти сумасшедшие.

(О Ключе Богов и, правда, ходят разные-преразные легенды. На каких только языках веками не пытались расписывать самые большие изумруды!.. На арабском, иудейском, индусском и даже на латыни... Только никто почему-то не хочет понять, что от этого камни не станут волшебными, как бы сильно кому-то этого не хотелось... На предлагаемых фотографиях видны: иранский псевдо Мани, и Великий Могул, и католический "талисман" Бога, и Изумрудная "дощечка" Гермеса (Emeral tablet) и даже знаменитая индийская Пещера Аполлона из Тианы, которую, как утверждают сами индусы, однажды посетил Иисус Христос. (Подробнее об этом можно прочитать в пишущейся сейчас книге «Святая страна Даария». Часть1. О чём ведали Боги?)) – Просто сработала, видимо, у кого-то когда-то родовая память, и человек вспомнил – было когда-то что-то несказанно великое, Богами подаренное. А вот ЧТО – не в силах понять... Так и ходят столетиями «искатели» неизвестно зачем и кружат кругами. Будто наказал кто-то: «пойди туда – не знаю куда, принеси то – не ведомо что»... Знают только, что сила в нём скрыта дюжая, знание невиданное. Умные за знанием гоняются, ну а «тёмные» как всегда пытаются найти его, чтобы править остальными... Думаю, это самая загадочная и самая (каждому по-своему) желанная реликвия, существовавшая когда-либо на Земле. Теперь всё только от тебя будет зависеть, светлая моя. Если меня не станет, ни за что не теряй его! Обещай мне это, Мария...

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Зобное молоко - WikiVisually

1. Птицы – Birds, a subgroup of Reptiles, are the last living examples of Dinosaurs. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at ten thousand. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians, the fossil record indicates that birds evolved from feathered ancestors within the theropod group of saurischian dinosaurs. True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous period, around 100 million years ago, Birds, especially those in the southern continents, survived this event and then migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species, the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have evolved for swimming. Many species annually migrate great distances, Birds are social, communicating with visual signals, calls, and bird songs, and participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of species are socially monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or, rarely, Birds produce offspring by laying eggs which are fertilised through sexual reproduction. They are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents, most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching. Some birds, such as hens, lay eggs even when not fertilised, songbirds, parrots, and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser, Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them. Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry, the first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system currently in use, Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda, Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria

2. Голубиные – Pigeons and doves constitute the bird family Columbidae, which includes about 310 species. Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and short slender bills and they primarily feed on seeds, fruits, and plants. This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya, in general, the terms dove and pigeon are used somewhat interchangeably. Pigeon is a French word that derives from the Latin pipio, for a peeping chick, the species most commonly referred to as pigeon is the rock dove, one subspecies of which, the domestic pigeon, is common in many cities as the feral pigeon. Pigeons and doves are likely the most common birds in the world, doves and pigeons build relatively flimsy nests – often using sticks and other debris – which may be placed in trees, on ledges, or on the ground, depending on species. They lay one or two eggs at a time, and both parents care for the young, which leave the nest after seven to 28 days. Unlike most birds, both sexes of doves and pigeons produce crop milk to feed to their young, secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop, young doves and pigeons are called squabs. The adjective columbine refers to pigeons and doves, recent phylogenomic studies support the grouping of these pigeons and sandgrouse together, along with mesites, forming the sister taxon to Mirandornithes. The Columbidae are usually divided into five subfamilies, probably inaccurately, for example, the American ground and quail doves, which are usually placed in the Columbinae, seem to be two distinct subfamilies. The order presented here follows Baptista et al. with some updates, osteology and DNA sequence analyses indicate the dodo and Rodrigues solitaire are better considered as a subfamily Raphinae in the Columbidae pending availability of further information. The dodo and Rodrigues solitaire are in all part of the Indo-Australian radiation that produced the three small subfamilies mentioned above, with the fruit-doves and pigeons. Therefore, they are included as a subfamily Raphinae, pending better material evidence of their exact relationships. Exacerbating these issues, columbids are not well represented in the fossil record, no truly primitive forms have been found to date. The genus Gerandia has been described from Early Miocene deposits of France, apart from that, all other fossils belong to extant genera. For these, and for the number of more recently extinct prehistoric species. Phylogeny based on the work by John H. Boyd III, Pigeons and doves exhibit considerable variations in size. Overall, the Columbidae tend to have short bills and legs, the wings are large and have low wing loadings, pigeons have strong wing muscles and are among the strongest fliers of all birds. They are also highly manoeuvrable in flight, the plumage of the family is variable

3. Фламинго – Flamingos or flamingoes /fləˈmɪŋɡoʊz/ are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only family in the order Phoenicopteriformes. There are four species in the Americas and two species in the Old World. A similar etymology has the Latinate Greek term Phoenicopterus, literally blood red-feathered. ]Traditionally, the long-legged Ciconiiformes, probably a paraphyletic assemblage, have considered the flamingos closest relatives. Usually the ibises and spoonbills of the Threskiornithidae were considered their closest relatives within this order, earlier genetic studies, such as those of Charles Sibley and colleagues, also supported this relationship. Relationships to the waterfowl were considered as well, especially as flamingos are parasitized by feather lice of the genus Anaticola, the peculiar presbyornithids were used to argue for a close relationship between flamingos, waterfowl, and waders. Living flamingoes based on the work by John Boyd, six extant flamingo species are recognized by most sources, and were formerly placed in one genus, Phoenicopterus. As a result of a 2014 publication, the family was reclassified into three genera, prehistoric species of flamingo, Phoenicopterus floridanus Brodkorb 1953 Phoenicopterus stocki Phoenicopterus siamensis Cheneval et al. They hold at least eleven morphological traits in common, which are not found in other birds, many of these characteristics have been previously identified on flamingos, but not on grebes. The fossil palaelodids can be considered evolutionarily, and ecologically, intermediate between flamingos and grebes, for the grebe-flamingo clade, the taxon Mirandornithes has been proposed. Alternatively, they could be placed in one order, with Phoenocopteriformes taking priority, flamingos usually stand on one leg while the other is tucked beneath their body. The reason for this behaviour is not fully understood, recent research indicates that standing on one leg may allow the birds to conserve more body heat, given that they spend a significant amount of time wading in cold water. However, the behaviour also takes place in warm water, as well as standing in the water, flamingos may stamp their webbed feet in the mud to stir up food from the bottom. Young flamingos hatch with greyish reddish plumage, but adults range from pink to bright red due to aqueous bacteria. A well-fed, healthy flamingo is more vibrantly colored and thus a more desirable mate, captive flamingos are a notable exception, many turn a pale pink as they are not fed carotene at levels comparable to the wild. Flamingos filter-feed on brine shrimp and blue-green algae and their bills are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they eat, and are uniquely used upside-down. The filtering of food items is assisted by hairy structures called lamellae which line the mandibles, the pink or reddish color of flamingos comes from carotenoids in their diet of animal and plant plankton. These carotenoids are broken down into pigments by liver enzymes, the source of this varies by species, and affects the saturation of color. Flamingos whose sole diet is blue-green algae are darker in color compared to those who get it second hand, flamingos are very social birds, they live in colonies whose population can number in the thousands

4. Пингвиновые – Penguins are a group of aquatic, flightless birds. They live almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, with one species. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans, although almost all penguin species are native to the Southern Hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south, several species are found in the temperate zone, and one species, the Galápagos penguin, lives near the equator. The largest living species is the penguin, on average adults are about 1.1 m tall. The smallest penguin species is the little penguin, also known as the fairy penguin. Among extant penguins, larger penguins inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are found in temperate or even tropical climates. Some prehistoric species attained enormous sizes, becoming as tall or as heavy as an adult human, the word penguin first appears in the 16th century as a synonym for great auk. The etymology of the penguin is still debated. The English word is not apparently of French, Breton or Spanish origin, an alternative etymology links the word to Latin pinguis, which means fat or oil. Support for this etymology can be found in the alternative Germanic word for penguin, fettgans or fat-goose, the number of extant penguin species is debated. Depending on which authority is followed, penguin biodiversity varies between 17 and 20 living species, all in the subfamily Spheniscinae. Some sources consider the white-flippered penguin a separate Eudyptula species, while others treat it as a subspecies of the little penguin, similarly, it is still unclear whether the royal penguin is merely a color morph of the macaroni penguin. The status of the penguins is also unclear. Updated after Marples, Acosta Hospitaleche, and Ksepka et al, CADIC P21 Delphinornis – Palaeeudyptinae, basal, new subfamily 1. Marambiornis – Palaeeudyptinae, basal, new subfamily 1, mesetaornis – Palaeeudyptinae, basal, new subfamily 1. Tonniornis Wimanornis Duntroonornis – possibly Spheniscinae Korora Kairuku Platydyptes – possibly not monophyletic, further examination in 1980 resulted in placement as Aves incertae sedis

5. Молоко – Milk is a pale liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mothers antibodies to its young and it contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose. As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy, Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India is the worlds largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, the ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India, China and Brazil are the worlds largest exporters of milk and milk products, China and Russia were the worlds largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk. Throughout the world, there are more than six billion consumers of milk and milk products, over 750 million people live in dairy farming households. The term milk comes from Old English meoluc, milc, from Proto-Germanic *meluks milk, there are two distinct types of milk consumption, a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals and a food product for humans of all ages that is derived from other animals. In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, the early milk from mammals is called colostrum. Colostrum contains antibodies that provide protection to the baby as well as nutrients. The makeup of the colostrum and the period of secretion varies from species to species, for humans, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months and breastfeeding in addition to other food for at least two years. In some cultures it is common to breastfeed children for three to five years, and the period may be longer, fresh goats milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk. This introduces the risk of the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, in many cultures of the world, especially the West, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals as a food product. Initially, the ability to digest milk was limited to children as adults did not produce lactase, Milk was therefore converted to curd, cheese and other products to reduce the levels of lactose. Thousands of years ago, a chance mutation spread in human populations in Europe that enabled the production of lactase in adulthood and this allowed milk to be used as a new source of nutrition which could sustain populations when other food sources failed. Milk is processed into a variety of products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream. Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, whole milk, butter and cream have high levels of saturated fat. The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, the enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the small intestine after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly

6. Млекопитающие – Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia, a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles by the possession of a neocortex, hair, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. All female mammals nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands, Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales. The basic body type is a quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme, all modern mammals give birth to live young, most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents, bats and Soricomorpha, the next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora. Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria and Theriiformes There are around 5450 species of mammal, in some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses, the Prototheria, that is, the order Monotremata, and the Theria, or the infraclasses Metatheria and Eutheria. The marsupials constitute the group of the Metatheria, and include all living metatherians as well as many extinct ones. Much of the changes reflect the advances of cladistic analysis and molecular genetics, findings from molecular genetics, for example, have prompted adopting new groups, such as the Afrotheria, and abandoning traditional groups, such as the Insectivora. The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade, the early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period, this group diverged from the line that led to todays reptiles. Some mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals, singing, and echolocation. Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies, harems, and hierarchies, most mammals are polygynous, but some can be monogamous or polyandrous. They provided, and continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as commodities such as meat, dairy products, wool. Mammals are hunted or raced for sport, and are used as model organisms in science, Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, and appear in literature, film, mythology, and religion. Defaunation of mammals is primarily driven by anthropogenic factors, such as poaching and habitat destruction, Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. No classification system is accepted, McKenna & Bell and Wilson & Reader provide useful recent compendiums. Though field work gradually made Simpsons classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to a classification of mammals

7. Углеводы – A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2,1, in other words, with the empirical formula Cmn. This formula holds true for monosaccharides, some exceptions exist, for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula C5h20O4. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon, structurally it is accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, the saccharides are divided into four chemical groups, monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest carbohydrates, are referred to as sugars. The word saccharide comes from the Greek word σάκχαρον, meaning sugar, while the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose. For example, grape sugar is the glucose, cane sugar is the disaccharide sucrose. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms, polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy and as structural components. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA, the related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting. In food science and in informal contexts, the term carbohydrate often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch or simple carbohydrates. Often in lists of information, such as the USDA National Nutrient Database, the term carbohydrate is used for everything other than water, protein, fat, ash. This will include chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, carbohydrates are found in wide variety of foods. The important sources are cereals, potatoes, sugarcane, fruits, table sugar, bread, milk, starch and sugar are the important carbohydrates in our diet. Starch is abundant in potatoes, maize, rice and other cereals, sugar appears in our diet mainly as sucrose which is added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam, biscuits and cakes. Glucose and fructose are found naturally in fruits and some vegetables. Glycogen is carbohydrate found in the liver and muscles, cellulose in the cell wall of all plant tissue is a carbohydrate. It is important in our diet as fibre which helps to maintain a healthy digestive system, formerly the name carbohydrate was used in chemistry for any compound with the formula Cm n

8. Лактоза – Lactose is a disaccharide sugar composed of galactose and glucose that is found in milk. Lactose makes up around 2–8% of milk, although the amount varies among species and individuals and it is extracted from sweet or sour whey. The name comes from lac, the Latin word for milk and it has a formula of C12h32O11 and the hydrate formula C12h32O11·h3O, making it an isomer of sucrose. The first crude isolation of lactose, by Italian physician Fabrizio Bartoletti, was published in 1633, in 1700, the Venetian pharmacist Lodovico Testi published a booklet of testimonials to the power of milk sugar to relieve, among other ailments, the symptoms of arthritis. In 1715, Testis procedure for making milk sugar was published by Antonio Vallisneri, lactose was identified as a sugar in 1780 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. In 1812, Heinrich Vogel recognized that glucose was a product of hydrolyzing lactose, in 1856, Louis Pasteur crystallized the other component of lactose, galactose. By 1894, Emil Fischer had established the configurations of the component sugars, lactose was named by the French chemist Jean Baptiste André Dumas in 1843. Lactose is a derived from the condensation of galactose and glucose. Lactose is hydrolysed to glucose and galactose, isomerised in alkaline solution to lactulose, lactose monohydrate crystals have a characteristic tomahawk shape that can be observed with a light microscope. Several million tons are produced annually as a by-product of the dairy industry, whey is made up of 6. 5% solids of which 4. 8% is lactose that may be purified by crystallisation. Whey or milk plasma is the liquid remaining after milk is curdled and strained, lactose makes up about 2–8% of milk by weight. Industrially, lactose is produced from whey permeate – that is whey filtrated for all major proteins, the protein fraction is used in infant nutrition and sport nutrition while the permeate can be evaporated to 60–65% solids and crystallized while cooling. Lactose can also be precipitated from whey using ethanol, since it is insoluble in ethanol, lactose precipitates, in about 65% yield. Infant mammals nurse on their mothers to drink milk, which is rich in lactose, the intestinal villi secrete the enzyme called lactase to digest it. This enzyme cleaves the molecule into its two subunits, the simple sugars glucose and galactose, which can be absorbed. Since lactose occurs mostly in milk, in most mammals, the production of lactase gradually decreases with maturity due to a lack of continuing consumption. Many people with ancestry in Europe, West Asia, South Asia, the Sahel belt in West Africa, East Africa, in many of these areas, milk from mammals such as cattle, goats, and sheep is used as a large source of food. Hence, it was in these regions that genes for lifelong lactase production first evolved, the genes of adult lactose tolerance have evolved independently in various ethnic groups

9. Кальций – Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. Calcium is a soft grayish-yellow alkaline earth metal, fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earths crust, the ion Ca2+ is also the fifth-most-abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate. Free calcium metal is too reactive to occur in nature, Calcium is produced in supernova nucleosynthesis. Calcium is a trace element in living organisms. It is the most abundant metal by mass in animals, and it is an important constituent of bone, teeth. In cell biology, the movement of the calcium ion into, Calcium carbonate and calcium citrate are often taken as dietary supplements. Calcium is on the World Health Organizations List of Essential Medicines, Calcium has a wide variety of applications, almost all of which are associated with calcium compounds and salts. Calcium metal is used as a deoxidizer, desulfurizer, and decarbonizer for production of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. In steelmaking and production of iron, Ca reacts with oxygen, Calcium carbonate is used in manufacturing cement and mortar, lime, limestone and aids in production in the glass industry. It also has chemical and optical uses as mineral specimens in toothpastes, Calcium hydroxide solution is used to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in a gas sample bubbled through a solution. The solution turns cloudy where CO2 is present, Calcium arsenate is used in insecticides. Calcium carbide is used to make acetylene gas and various plastics, Calcium chloride is used in ice removal and dust control on dirt roads, as a conditioner for concrete, as an additive in canned tomatoes, and to provide body for automobile tires. Calcium citrate is used as a food preservative, Calcium cyclamate is used as a sweetening agent in several countries. In the United States, it has been outlawed as a suspected carcinogen, Calcium gluconate is used as a food additive and in vitamin pills. Calcium hypochlorite is used as a swimming pool disinfectant, as an agent, as an ingredient in deodorant. Calcium permanganate is used in rocket propellant, textile production, as a water sterilizing agent. Calcium phosphate is used as a supplement for animal feed, fertilizer, in production for dough and yeast products, in the manufacture of glass. Calcium phosphide is used in fireworks, rodenticide, torpedoes, Calcium sulfate is used as common blackboard chalk, as well as, in its hemihydrate form, Plaster of Paris

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